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VCD 4480 Advanced Visual Communication Design: Home

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Why Research

  • Understand the problem
  • Understand the audience - current knowledge / perceptions
  • Understand what has been done before: historically / modern practice

                        from VCD-4480 syllabus

Quick Definitions

Qualitative  "studying the nature, quality, and meaning of human experience."

Narrative (words not numbers)

tends to be rich and complex

more difficult to analyze than Quantitative

Collection Methods: 

interviews, surveys, questionnaires

observations -  People are observed in naturalistic behavior

Quantitative - "controlled conditions via experiments, in order to isolate the causal effects of independent variables." 

Collection Methods:

research Experiments

survey research

Primary research - original research carried out for a specific purpose

Sources:  Original research, diaries, blogs, personal reflections,  photographs, newspapers published at time of event

Secondary research - Research carried out by someone else for another purpose, basically second-hand research

Sources:  newspapers, journals, websites, published research, books, academic journals, government reports, commercial research


"Marketing Research." Key Concepts in Marketing, Jim Blythe, Sage UK, 2009. Credo Reference. Accessed 02 Sep. 2019.

"Quantitative Research." The SAGE Glossary of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, edited by Larry E. Sullivan, Sage Publications, 2009. Credo Reference.  Accessed 02 Sep. 2019.

Exploratory Research

Exploratory Research

Bhat, A. (2019). Exploratory Research: Definition, Methods, Types and Examples. Retrieved September 1, 2019, from Question Pro website:


Quantitative / Qualitative and Primary / Secondary
Qualitative / Primary Qualitative / Secondary
Quantitative / Primary Quantitative / Secondary


Subject Guide

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Miriam Liethen
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Morgan Library - Learning Center
Grace College & Seminary
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Winona Lake, IN 46590
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